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鋁合金 不袗 鴿子腳環

鸚鵡喙羽病

一般情況下,鸚鵡喙羽病,通常被稱為為PBFD,被認為是一個年輕的鸚鵡病,一般可達3歲。然而,年齡較大的鳥類,往往到20歲,已在臨床上正常在他們的生活中,可以也突然打破所有的跡象PBFD的。據認為,鳥類通常暴露的PBFD病毒在年輕的時候,當他們的免疫系統不強,他們可能會出現正常了多年,最後才發展的PBFD的跡象。據推測,這些鳥類感染,並最終打破的病,也許多年以後。

如果一隻鳥的合約,PBFD之前它的羽毛,他們常常表現出異常的經典的羽毛長出來。但是,如果的的雛鳥合同PBFD後,它已經長出了它的羽毛,異常的羽毛可能不會出現,直到鳥蛻皮和正常的羽毛被替換異常的。有時,一個年輕的鳥,合同PBFD將死之前,在所有開發羽毛病變。然而,在任何情況下,任何的鳥,羽毛病變應進行羽毛毛囊活檢,以明確診斷。PBFD,可能會出現的一個peracute感染,急性感染或慢性疾病。

該小組的喬治亞大學,的布蘭森里奇,DABVP博士為首的,革命性的診斷鸚鵡喙羽病,俗稱PBFD,為aviculturists和寵物主人時,它發現於1991年年底和1992年年初,PBFD是由一個圓環。該小組開發了一個非常敏感和特異的DNA PCR檢測,告訴如果一隻鳥在血液中的病毒。(但是,羽毛毛囊活檢仍然是一個有價值的診斷測試任何的鳥,羽毛病變)。

,導致這種疾病的的原始PBFD病毒現在被稱為鸚鵡圓環病毒1(PsCV-1)。在最近幾年中,病毒的第二變型中發現lories與羽毛病變,該變型現在被稱為PsCV-2。lories PsCV-2和營養不良的羽毛可安裝適當的免疫反應,並最終從感染中恢復。

澳大利亞探險家首次發現這種疾病在1887年,當他們描述的特徵的野生紅腰長尾小鸚鵡的羽毛變化(Psephotus)。但是我們都知道,這種疾病最初是在好幾個物種的澳大利亞美冠鸚鵡,在20世紀70年代初。有許多建議的原因,這種疾病包括內分泌異常,多瘤病毒,支原體,紐卡斯爾氏病病毒,Reo病毒,腺病毒,沙門氏菌病和其他傳染性病原體的。

有報導稱,可能有高達20%的自由放養的鳳頭鸚鵡在澳大利亞維多利亞州,在任何一年的臨床症狀PBFD。其他的研究和軼事報告表明,的PBFD病毒造成的疾病在一些其他的澳大利亞美冠鸚鵡成群,野生的深紅色玫瑰鸚鵡和其他野生種群的摩鹿加鳳頭鸚鵡,愛情鳥和其他種類的鳳頭鸚鵡。

甚麼種類的鳥會得PBFD?

有趣的是,很多病毒都具有種屬特異性,或僅限於引起疾病密切相關的物種。這是一種罕見的病毒,如造成狂犬病,可以感染並在許多不同類型的動物中引起疾病。

令人欣慰的知道,我們照顧我們的寵物鳥的人是無法收縮引起的疾病的PBFD病毒。這對我們來說是個好消息。但在澳大利亞,北美,歐洲和亞洲的許多鳥類很容易的,已經證實了視為發展PBFD從PsCV-1 40多個品種的鸚鵡類的鳥。

在除了變種PsCV 2,其他圓環病毒發現的。此外,類似的圓環病毒已發現的鴿子和鴿子。鷗,鵝,金絲雀,雀和人類其他圓環病毒已被確定。然而,這些病毒,不會引起疾病的鸚鵡。

在佐治亞大學的博士里奇和他的團隊已經工作到一個疫苗對PBFD的發展,並希望,在不久的將來將提供。但是,直到有疫苗,我們仍然必須依靠測試作為一種防止由PsCV-1引起的疾病。

診斷PBFD

如何PBFD診斷今天嗎?讓我給你舉一個例子,幾年前發生在我處理的鳥舍。客戶端有一個進口timneh灰色,這是設置為一個種雞,差的羽毛。相信鳥的羽毛選擇器,他從來沒有測試的鳥PBFD。最終,這種鳥的繁殖與女性,連同其他12個小雞,包括兩個Pionus,三渣甸的鸚鵡幼鳥,六個非洲灰鸚鵡和一個迷你金剛鸚鵡的雛鳥被帶進了幼兒園。

當的嬰兒timneh的灰色開始出現異常的羽毛,他的獸醫跑了一個PBFD的的血液測試(必須制定清潔靜脈穿刺棒,而不是通過修剪趾甲,這可能會污染樣品的病毒粒子)。當測試結果呈陽性,獸醫轉介客戶給我處理問題。鳥舍的老闆很不高興,因為你可以想像,因為他認為他可能會失去他的寶貝鳥。

由於該病毒被認為是傳播受感染的鳥類的羽毛的皮屑,糞便和其他分泌物,機會,新生兒在幼兒園都暴露出來。採血所有的幼鳥,,和測試存在的PBFD病毒的。出的12名嬰兒在托兒所(分離timneh),10藥檢呈陽性。

但是,好消息是,很多暴露的嬰兒將安裝一個有效的免疫反應,一個積極的測試的基礎上,不應該被實施安樂死。

環境樣本還考慮到窗台,地板和牆壁,測試PBFD病毒污染的存在。鳥的羽毛病變進行診斷,以及受影響的羽毛和毛囊活檢,以確定疾病。

任何鳥類,檢測結果呈陽性,但沒有羽毛病變,應在90天內重新進行測試,而且是在這種情況下,我們所做的。在90天的試驗結果陰性表示這隻鳥已經消除了病毒的血液,這是10的嬰兒,在這種情況下,發生了什麼事。仍然檢測呈陽性的嬰兒潛伏感染,並最終打破了臨床PBFD,但其他8人基本上是自我接種疫苗,並應考慮到病毒的免疫。環境樣本檢測呈陽性,這意味著業主需要進行徹底的清洗,即使許多常用的消毒劑在殺死這個穩定的病毒是無效的。

今天,最負責任的鳥舍有容易受到較大的飼養員鳥的PBFD病毒測試,並已宰殺了積極的鳥從他們的育種計劃。不幸的是,並非所有種鳥類,特別是規模較小的鳥類,如比翼鳥和虎皮鸚鵡,已經過測試,PBFD由於成本或不了解的。

Antibody titer surveys in the United States suggest that most birds of susceptible larger species are exposed to the virus at some time in their lives but are able to mount進行 an effective immune response.

This is considered natural vaccination, just like the baby birds in the nursery that were all exposed to the virus, tested positive and then later tested negative. Those birds would likely be immune to the PBFD virus for life.

在美國的抗體濃度的測定調查中可以看出,大部分的容易受感染的鳥類品種,在他們的生命中的一些時間暴露在有病毒的環境,反而能有效的促進身體免疫反應的進行。

這被認為像是一種自然的疫苗接種,就像幼鳥寶寶在育兒室暴露在病毒的環境下,PBFD病毒檢測呈現陽性,之後一段時間再做PBFD病毒檢測呈現陰性,這些鳥可能對PBFD病毒產生終身免疫。



沒有PBFD疫苗

,是目前沒有預防疫苗PBFD,所以我們的方法來控制疾病的涉及測試易感鳥類和撲殺任何測試兩次,90天,如果他們有沒有病變PBFD的。任何的鳥類,羽毛病變,應考慮到被感染測試呈陽性。被感染,將最有可能打破這種疾病的較後日期或鳥正在持續暴露在病毒的鳥類,兩次試驗陽性,但沒有跡象表明,應考慮。

這往往是看我們用什麼寵物和育種:經過較長時間的寵物或種雞突然羽毛病變和生病。一個會導致測試結果呈陽性的業主心碎的消息。一個積極的診斷是一個虛擬的死刑,因為我們無法治療的原發性病毒性感染,但只有繼發真菌,細菌,支原體,衣原體或原蟲感染。儘管我們盡了最大的努力,鳥最終會發展一種使人衰弱的疾病,有沒有恢復。

的變種的圓環,PsCV的的2需要不同的DNA聚合?鏈反應檢測比PsCV-1。還有一個通用的圓環病毒DNA聚合?鏈反應測試,可以是有用的診斷圓環病毒感染的其他品種,如金絲雀和雀。

今天,在美國,我們主要是診斷活動PsCV-1感染的愛情鳥。然而,從多瘤病毒感染中恢復的比翼鳥,可能會出現類似的羽毛病變,因此,區分兩個卵泡穿刺活檢和DNA聚合?鏈反應測試是有價值的。

這是有可能被感染的愛情鳥棚病毒和傳播PsCV-1的其他易感雛禽在一家寵物商店的幼兒園,在家中或鳥舍。,但我很少診斷這種疾病在鸚鵡在我的實踐中,主要是因為我的鳥舍的客戶年前的辛勤進行測試。根據博士里奇,變種PsCV-2並沒有被診斷鳥類以外lories該變型不同,約10%從PsCV-1。

希望,一旦疫苗商業化,育種者和擁有者將利用這一資源,消除這種可怕的病毒威脅我們的鸚鵡。禽的獸醫將有更多的工具,在他們的核武庫,以幫助保持很長一段時間的鳥兒在我國健康。

英文原文

出處
http://www.birdchannel.com/bird-diet-and-health/bird-diseases/bird-diseases-pbfd.aspx

Discover what this bird disease is, what birds it affects and what can be done about it. By Margaret A. Wissman, DVM, DABVP

Generally, psittacine beak and feather disease, commonly referred to as PBFD, is considered to be a disease of young psittacines, usually up to 3 years of age. However, older birds, often up to 20 years of age that had been clinically normal throughout most of their lives, can also suddenly break with all the signs of PBFD. It is thought that birds are usually exposed to the PBFD virus at a young age, when their immune systems aren’t as strong, and they may appear normal for years before finally developing signs of PBFD. It is suspected that these birds are infected and eventually break down with illness, perhaps years later.

If a bird contracts PBFD prior to developing its feathers, they will often show the classic abnormalities as the feathers grow out. However, if a baby bird contracts PBFD after it has already grown out its feathers, the abnormal feathers may not show up until the bird molts and the normal feathers are replaced with abnormal ones. Occasionally, a young bird that contracted PBFD would die before developing feather lesions at all. In all cases, however, any bird with feather lesions should undergo feather follicle biopsies to confirm the diagnosis. PBFD may present as a peracute infection, acute infection or a chronic disease.

The team at the University of Georgia, headed by Dr. Branson Ritchie, DABVP, revolutionized the diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease, commonly called PBFD, for aviculturists and pet owners when it discovered in late 1991 and early 1992 that PBFD was caused by a circovirus. The team developed a very sensitive and specific DNA PCR test that would tell if a bird had the virus in the bloodstream. (However, feather follicle biopsies are still a valuable diagnostic test for any bird with feather lesions.)

The original PBFD virus that causes this disease is now called psittacine circovirus 1 (PsCV-1). In recent years, a second variant of the virus was discovered in lories with feather lesions, and this variant is now called PsCV-2. Lories with PsCV-2 and dystrophic feathers may mount an appropriate immune response and eventually recover from the infection.

Australian explorers may have first identified this disease in 1887, when they described the characteristic feather changes in wild red-rumped parakeets (Psephotus sp.). However, the disease we have come to know was first described in several species of Australian cockatoos in the early 1970s. There were many proposed causes of this disease including endocrine abnormalities, polyomavirus, Mycoplasma, Newcastle’s disease virus, reo virus, adenovirus, salmonellosis and other infectious agents.

It has been reported that up to 20 percent of free-ranging cockatoos in Victoria, Australia, may have clinical signs of PBFD in any one year. Other studies and anecdotal reports indicate that the PBFD virus is causing disease in some other Australian cockatoo flocks, wild crimson rosellas and other wild populations of Moluccan cockatoos, lovebirds and other species of cockatoos.

What Bird Species Get PBFD?

Interestingly, many viruses are species specific, or confined to causing disease in closely related species. It is a rare virus, such as that causing rabies, that can infect and cause disease in many different types of animal.

It’s comforting to know that we who care for our pet birds are unable to contract the disease caused by the PBFD virus. This is good news for us. But many species of bird in Australia, North America, Europe and Asia are susceptible, and more than 40 species of psittacine birds have been documented as having developed PBFD from PsCV-1. In addition to the variant PsCV-2, other circoviruses have been discovered. Also, a similar circovirus has been found in doves and pigeons. Other circoviruses have been identified in gulls, geese, canaries, finches and humans. These viruses, however, cannot cause disease in parrots.

Dr. Ritchie and his team at the University of Georgia have been working to develop a vaccine against PBFD, and, hopefully, one will be available in the near future. But until a vaccine is available, we must still rely on testing as a way of preventing illness caused by PsCV-1.

Diagnosing PBFD

How is PBFD diagnosed today? Let me give you an example that occurred several years ago in an aviary I dealt with. A client had an imported timneh grey, which was set up as a breeder bird, with poor feathering. Believing the bird was a feather-picker, he never tested the bird for PBFD. Eventually, this bird bred with a female, and the baby bird was brought into the nursery along with 12 other chicks, including two Pionus, three Jardine’s parrot chicks, six African greys and one mini-macaw.

When the baby timneh grey began showing abnormal feathers, his vet ran a PBFD blood test (which must be drawn by clean venipuncture stick and not by clipping a toenail, which may contaminate the sample with viral particles). When the test came back positive, the vet referred the client to me to deal with the problem. The aviary owner was very upset, as you can imagine, as he thought he would probably lose all of his baby birds.

Since the virus is thought to be spread by feather dander, fecal matter and other secretions from infected birds, chances were, the other neonates in the nursery were all exposed. Blood was drawn from all of the baby birds and tested for the presence of the PBFD virus. Out of the 12 babies in the nursery (the timneh was isolated), 10 tested positive. But, the good news is that many exposed babies will mount an effective immune response and should not be euthanized based on one positive test.

An environmental swab was also taken of windowsills, floorboards and walls to test for the presence of contamination with PBFD virus. The birds with feather lesions underwent diagnostic biopsy of affected feathers and follicles, as well, to confirm the disease. Any birds that test positive, but have no feather lesions, should be retested in 90 days, and that is what we did in this case. A negative test in 90 days indicates that the bird has eliminated the virus from the bloodstream, which is what happened in 10 of the babies in this case. The two babies that still tested positive were latently infected and eventually broke with clinical PBFD, but the other eight were basically self-vaccinated and should be considered immune to the virus.

The environmental swab tested positive, meaning that the owners needed to perform a thorough cleaning even though many commonly used disinfectants are ineffective in killing this stable virus.

Today, most responsible aviaries have had all susceptible larger breeder birds tested for the PBFD virus and have culled positive birds from their breeding programs. Unfortunately, not all breeder birds, particularly smaller birds such as lovebirds and budgies, have been tested for PBFD due to cost or unawareness.

It is thought that, based on the results of antibody titers, that many birds of susceptible species have some detectable anti-PBFD virus antibodies, indicating previous exposure to the virus. Antibody titer surveys in the United States suggest that most birds of susceptible larger species are exposed to the virus at some time in their lives but are able to mount an effective immune response. This is considered natural vaccination, just like the baby birds in the nursery that were all exposed to the virus, tested positive and then later tested negative. Those birds would likely be immune to the PBFD virus for life.

No PBFD Vaccine

There is currently no preventative vaccine against PBFD, so our methods for controlling the disease involve testing susceptible birds and culling any that test positive twice, 90 days apart, if they have no lesions of PBFD. Any birds that test positive that have feather lesions should be considered to be infected. Birds that test positive twice, yet show no signs, should be considered to be infected and will most likely break with the disease at a later date or the bird is being persistently exposed to the virus.

This is often what we used to see with pets and breeders: A long-time pet or breeder bird would suddenly develop feather lesions and become ill. A positive test result would result in heartbreaking news for owners. A positive diagnosis was a virtual death sentence, as we could not treat the primary viral infection but only the secondary fungal, bacterial, mycoplasmal, chlamydial or protozoal infections. In spite of our best efforts, birds would eventually develop a debilitating illness from which there was no recovery.

The variant of circovirus, PsCV-2 requires a different DNA PCR test than PsCV-1. There is also a generic circovirus DNA PCR test that can be useful in diagnosing circovirus infections in other species, such as canaries and finches.

Today, in the United States, we are primarily diagnosing active PsCV-1 infections in lovebirds. However, lovebirds that have recovered from polyomavirus infection may show similar feather lesions, so follicle biopsies and DNA PCR tests are valuable in differentiating between the two. It is possible for an infected lovebird to shed the virus and spread PsCV-1 to other susceptible young birds in a pet store nursery, home or aviary. But, I rarely diagnose this disease in psittacines in my practice today, mainly because of the diligent testing performed by my aviary clients years ago. According to Dr. Ritchie, the variant PsCV-2 has not been diagnosed in birds other than lories and that variant differs approximately 10 percent from PsCV-1.

Once the vaccine becomes commercially available, hopefully, breeders and owners will utilize this resource to eliminate this terrible virus threat from our psittacines. Avian veterinarians will have one more tool in their arsenal to help keep the birds in our country healthy for a very long time.

腳環工廠年終特惠
溫奶器
藍亞仕飼料
內分泌酵素
奈米蛋白粉
波飛飼料
蛋黃粉/鈣粉/乳酸菌
鸚鵡叢書
消毒片
矽藻土
活動腳環
鸚鵡撲克牌
動物性蛋白質--蠅蛆蟲粉
A19/A21/Lory奶粉
外出繩  防脫落扣具
鸚鵡繁殖的秘密武器
和美健飼料

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